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Heroes & Martyrs

KATIPUNAN
Bonifacio
Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro

Andrés Bonifacio, November 30, 1863 – May 10, 1897 was a Filipino freemason and revolutionary leader.
He is often called "The Father of the Philippine Revolution", and considered one of the national heroes of the Philippines. He was one of the founders and later the Kataas-taasang Pangulo of the Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan or more commonly known as the "Katipunan", a movement which sought the independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule and started the Tagalog Revolution.
With the onset of the Revolution, Bonifacio reorganized the Katipunan into a revolutionary government, with himself as President (Pangulo) of a nation-state called "Haring Bayang Katagalugan" ("Sovereign Tagalog Nation"), also "Republika ng Katagaluguan" ("Tagalog Republic"), wherein "Tagalog" referred to all those born in the Philippine islands and not merely the Tagalog ethnic group.
Hence, some historians have argued that he should be considered the First President of the Tagalogs instead of the Philippines, that is why he is not included in the current official line of succession.

Gregoria_de_Jesús
Gregoria de Jesús y Álvarez

Gregoria de Jesús (Lakambini), 9 May 1875 – 15 March 1943, also known by her nickname Oriang, was the founder and vice-president of the women's chapter of the Katipunan of the Philippines.
She was also the custodian of the documents and seal of the Katipunan.
She married Andrés Bonifacio, the Supremo of the Katipunan and President of the Katagalugan Revolutionary Government.
 She played a major and one of the important roles in the Philippine Revolution.
After the death of Bonifacio, she married Julio Nakpil, one of the generals of the revolution.
 She had one son from Andrés Bonifacio and five children from Julio Nakpil.

emilio-jacinto
Emilio Jacinto y Dizon
Emilio Jacinto, December 15, 1875 – April 16, 1899 was a Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution.
was one of the highest-ranking officers in the Philippine Revolution and was one of the highest-ranking officers of the revolutionary society Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan, or simply and more popularly called Katipunan, being a member of its Supreme Council.
 He was elected Secretary of State for the Haring Bayang Katagalugan, a revolutionary government established during the outbreak of hostilities.
 He is popularly known in Philippine history textbooks as the Brains of the Katipunan while some contend he should be rightfully recognized as the "Brains of the Revolution" (Utak ng Himagsikan).
Jacinto was present in the so-called Cry of Pugad Lawin (or Cry of Balintawak) with Andrés Bonifacio, the Supremo of the Katipunan, and others of its members which signaled the start of the Revolution against the Spanish colonial government in the islands.
LEADERS OF THE REVOLUTION
Bonifacio
Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro

Andrés Bonifacio, November 30, 1863 – May 10, 1897 was a Filipino freemason and revolutionary leader.
He is often called "The Father of the Philippine Revolution", and considered one of the national heroes of the Philippines. He was one of the founders and later the Kataas-taasang Pangulo of the Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan or more commonly known as the "Katipunan", a movement which sought the independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule and started the Tagalog Revolution.
With the onset of the Revolution, Bonifacio reorganized the Katipunan into a revolutionary government, with himself as President (Pangulo) of a nation-state called "Haring Bayang Katagalugan" ("Sovereign Tagalog Nation"), also "Republika ng Katagaluguan" ("Tagalog Republic"), wherein "Tagalog" referred to all those born in the Philippine islands and not merely the Tagalog ethnic group.
Hence, some historians have argued that he should be considered the First President of the Tagalogs instead of the Philippines, that is why he is not included in the current official line of succession.

Emilio_Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964 was a Filipino revolutionary, statesman, and military leader who is officially recognized as the first and the youngest president of the Philippines (1899–1901) and the first president of a constitutional republic in Asia. He led Philippine forces first against Spain in the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898), then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899–1901).
Aguinaldo remains a controversial figure in Filipino history.
 Though he has been recommended as a national hero of the Philippines,many have criticized him for his involvement in the deaths of revolutionary leader Andrés Bonifacio and general Antonio Luna, as well as his sympathies for the Japanese Empire during their occupation of the Philippines in World War II.
emilio-jacinto
Emilio Jacinto y Dizon
Emilio Jacinto, December 15, 1875 – April 16, 1899 was a Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution.
was one of the highest-ranking officers in the Philippine Revolution and was one of the highest-ranking officers of the revolutionary society Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan, or simply and more popularly called Katipunan, being a member of its Supreme Council.
 He was elected Secretary of State for the Haring Bayang Katagalugan, a revolutionary government established during the outbreak of hostilities.
 He is popularly known in Philippine history textbooks as the Brains of the Katipunan while some contend he should be rightfully recognized as the "Brains of the Revolution" (Utak ng Himagsikan).
Jacinto was present in the so-called Cry of Pugad Lawin (or Cry of Balintawak) with Andrés Bonifacio, the Supremo of the Katipunan, and others of its members which signaled the start of the Revolution against the Spanish colonial government in the islands.
mabini
Apolinario Mabini y Maranan
Apolinario Mabini y Maranan, July 23, 1864 – May 13, 1903 was a Filipino revolutionary leader, educator, lawyer, and statesman who served first as a legal and constitutional adviser to the Revolutionary Government, and then as the first Prime Minister of the Philippines upon the establishment of the First Philippine Republic.
 He is regarded as the "utak ng himagsikan" or "brain of the revolution" and is also to be considered to be as a national hero in the Philippines.
 Mabini's work and thoughts on the government shaped the Philippines' fight for independence over the next century. Two of his works, El Verdadero Decálogo (The True Decalogue, June 24, 1898), and Programa Constitucional de la República Filipina (The Constitutional Program of the Philippine Republic, 1898) became instrumental in the drafting of what would eventually be known as the Malolos Constitution.
Mabini performed all his revolutionary and governmental activities despite having lost the use of both his legs to polio shortly before the Philippine Revolution of 1896.
Mabini's role in Philippine history saw him confronting first Spanish colonial rule in the opening days of the Philippine Revolution, and then American colonial rule in the days of the Philippine–American War.
The latter saw Mabini captured and exiled to Guam by American colonial authorities, allowed to return only two months before his eventual death in May 1903.
AGITATORS
jose_rizal
José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda
José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda, June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896 was a Filipino nationalist, writer, and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines.
He is considered as the national hero (pambansang bayani) of the Philippines.
An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement, which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain.
He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after the Philippine Revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out.
Though he was not actively involved in its planning or conduct, he ultimately approved of its goals which eventually led to Philippine independence.
He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines and has been recommended to be so honored by an officially empaneled National Heroes Committee.
However, no law, executive order or proclamation has been enacted or issued officially proclaiming any Filipino historical figure as a national hero.
He was the author of Noli Me Tángere and El filibusterismo, and a number of poems and essays.
antonio_de_luna
Antonio Narciso Luna de San Pedro y Novicio Ancheta
Antonio Narciso Luna de San Pedro y Novicio Ancheta, 29 October 1866 – 5 June 1899 was a Filipino army general who fought in the Philippine–American War before his assassination in 1899.
Regarded as one of the fiercest generals of his time, he succeeded Artemio Ricarte as the Commanding General of the Philippine Army.
He sought to apply his background in military science to the fledgling army.
A sharpshooter himself, he organized professional guerrilla soldiers later named the "Luna Sharpshooters" and the "Black Guard" with Senyor Michael Joaquin.
His three-tier defense, now known as the Luna Defense Line, gave the American troops a difficult endeavor during their campaign in the provinces north of Manila.
This defense line culminated in the creation of a military stronghold in the Cordillera.
Despite his commitment to discipline the army and serve the Republic which attracted the admiration of people, his temper and fiery outlashes caused some to abhor him, including people from Aguinaldo's Cabinet.
Nevertheless, Luna's efforts were not without recognition during his time, for he was awarded the Philippine Republic Medal in 1899.
He was also a member of the Malolos Congress.
Besides his military studies, Luna also studied pharmacology, literature and chemistry..
juan_luna
Juan Luna de San Pedro y Novicio Ancheta
Juan Luna de San Pedro y Novicio Ancheta, October 23, 1857 – December 7, 1899 was a Filipino painter, sculptor and a political activist of the Philippine Revolution during the late 19th century.
He became one of the first recognized Philippine artists.
His winning the gold medal in the 1884 Madrid Exposition of Fine Arts, along with the silver win of fellow Filipino painter Félix Resurrección Hidalgo, prompted a celebration which was a major highlight in the memoirs of members of the Propaganda Movement, with the fellow Ilustrados toasting to the two painters' good health and to the brotherhood between Spain and the Philippines.
Regarded for work done in the manner of European academies of his time, Luna painted literary and historical scenes, some with an underscore of political commentary.
His allegorical works were inspired with classical balance, and often showed figures in theatrical poses..
graciano_lopez
Graciano López y Jaena
Graciano López y Jaena, December 18, 1856 – January 20, 1896, commonly known as Graciano López Jaena, was a Filipino journalist, orator, reformist, and national hero who is well known for his newspaper, La Solidaridad.
Philippine historians regard López Jaena, along with Marcelo H. del Pilar and José Rizal, as the triumvirate of Filipino propagandists.
Of these three ilustrados, López Jaena was the first to arrive in Spain and may have begun the Propaganda Movement, which advocated the reform of the then-Spanish colony of the Philippines and which eventually led to the armed Philippine Revolution that begun in Manila in 1896.
The Propaganda Movement was a key step towards a Philippine national identity..
marcelo_del_pilar
Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán
Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán, August 30, 1850 – July 4, 1896, commonly known as Marcelo H. del Pilar and also known by his pen name Pláridel, was a Filipino writer, lawyer, journalist, and freemason.
Del Pilar, along with José Rizal and Graciano López Jaena, became known as the leaders of the Reform Movement in Spain.
Del Pilar was born and brought up in Bulakan, Bulacan.
He was suspended at the Universidad de Santo Tomás and imprisoned in 1869 after he and the parish priest quarreled over exorbitant baptismal fees.
In the 1880s, he expanded his anti-friar movement from Malolos to Manila.
He went to Spain in 1888 after an order of banishment was issued against him.
Twelve months after his arrival in Barcelona, he succeeded López Jaena as editor of the La Solidaridad (Solidarity).
Publication of the newspaper stopped in 1895 due to lack of funds.
Losing hope in reforms, he grew favorable of a revolution against Spain.
He was on his way home in 1896 when he contracted tuberculosis in Barcelona.
He later died in a public hospital and was buried in a pauper's grave.

On November 30, 1997, the Technical Committee of the National Heroes Committee, created through Executive Order No. 5 by former President Fidel V. Ramos, recommended del Pilar along with the eight Filipino historical figures to be National Heroes.
The recommendations were submitted to Department of Education Secretary Ricardo T. Gloria on November 22, 1995.
No action has been taken for these recommended historical figures.
In 2009, this issue was revisited in one of the proceedings of the 14th Congress.
GENERALS
Emilio_Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964 was a Filipino revolutionary, statesman, and military leader who is officially recognized as the first and the youngest president of the Philippines (1899–1901) and the first president of a constitutional republic in Asia. He led Philippine forces first against Spain in the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898), then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899–1901).
Aguinaldo remains a controversial figure in Filipino history.
 Though he has been recommended as a national hero of the Philippines,many have criticized him for his involvement in the deaths of revolutionary leader Andrés Bonifacio and general Antonio Luna, as well as his sympathies for the Japanese Empire during their occupation of the Philippines in World War II.
antonio_de_luna
Antonio Narciso Luna de San Pedro y Novicio Ancheta
Antonio Narciso Luna de San Pedro y Novicio Ancheta, 29 October 1866 – 5 June 1899 was a Filipino army general who fought in the Philippine–American War before his assassination in 1899.
Regarded as one of the fiercest generals of his time, he succeeded Artemio Ricarte as the Commanding General of the Philippine Army.
He sought to apply his background in military science to the fledgling army.
A sharpshooter himself, he organized professional guerrilla soldiers later named the "Luna Sharpshooters" and the "Black Guard" with Senyor Michael Joaquin.
His three-tier defense, now known as the Luna Defense Line, gave the American troops a difficult endeavor during their campaign in the provinces north of Manila.
This defense line culminated in the creation of a military stronghold in the Cordillera.
Despite his commitment to discipline the army and serve the Republic which attracted the admiration of people, his temper and fiery outlashes caused some to abhor him, including people from Aguinaldo's Cabinet.
Nevertheless, Luna's efforts were not without recognition during his time, for he was awarded the Philippine Republic Medal in 1899.
He was also a member of the Malolos Congress.
Besides his military studies, Luna also studied pharmacology, literature and chemistry..
LLanera
Mariano Nuñez Llanera
Mariano Nuñez Llanera, born Mariano Llanera y Nuñez, November 9, 1855 – September 19, 1942 was a Filipino revolutionary general from Cabiao, Nueva Ecija who fought in his aforementioned home province, and also in the neighboring provinces of Bulacan, Tarlac, and Pampanga.
He is considered one of the "three Fathers" (the main instigators/ commanders) of the Cry of Nueva Ecija, along with Pantaleon Valmonte and Manuel Tinio.
Gen_del_Pilar
Gregorio Hilario del Pilar y Sempio
Gregorio Hilario del Pilar y Sempio, November 14, 1875 – December 2, 1899 was a Filipino general of the Philippine Revolutionary Army during the Philippine–American War.
As one of the youngest generals in the Revolutionary Army, he was known for the successful assault on the Spanish barracks in the municipality of Paombong, his victory on the first phase Battle of Quingua and his last stand at the Battle of Tirad Pass during the Philippine–American War.
Because of his youth, he became known as the "Boy General".
He was also known as a ladies man and was described by National Artist for Literature Nick Joaquin as the "Byron of Bulacan".
Malvar
Miguel Malvar y Carpio
Miguel Malvar y Carpio, September 27, 1865 – October 13, 1911 was a Filipino general who served during the Philippine Revolution and, subsequently, during the Philippine–American War.
He assumed command of the Philippine revolutionary forces during the latter, following the capture of resistance leader Emilio Aguinaldo by the Americans in 1901.
According to some historians, he could have been listed as one of the presidents of the Philippines but is currently not recognized as such by the Philippine government.
GOMBURZA
padre_mariano_gomez
Fr. Mariano Gómes de los Ángeles
Mariano Gómes de los Ángeles, often referred to by his original birth name Mariano Gómez de los Ángeles, was a Filipino Catholic priest, who was falsely accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century.
He was placed in a mock trial and summarily executed in Manila along with two other clergymen collectively known as the Gomburza.
Gómez was the head of the three priests and spent his life writing about abuses against Filipino priests.
padre-jose-burgos
Fr. Apolonio Burgos y García
José Apolonio Burgos y García was a Filipino Catholic priest, accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century.
He was tried and executed in Manila along with two other clergymen, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora, who are collectively known as the Gomburza.
padre-jacinto-zamora
Fr. Jacinto Zamora y del Rosario
Jacinto Zamora y del Rosario, 14 August 1835 – 17 February 1872 was a Filipino Catholic priest, part of the Gomburza, a trio of priests who were falsely accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century.
FAMOUS WOMEN
Theodora_alonzo_quintos-2
Teodora Alonso Realonda y Quintos

-- Teodora Alonso Realonda y Quintos, November 9, 1827 – August 16, 1911 was a wealthy woman in the Spanish colonial Philippines.
She was best known as the mother of the Philippines' national hero Jose Rizal.
Realonda was born in Santa Cruz, Manila.
She was also known for being a disciplinarian and hard-working mother.
Her medical condition inspired Rizal to take up medicine.
-- Teodora married Francisco Mercado, a native of Biñan, Laguna, on June 28, 1848, when she was 20 years old.
The couple resided in Laguna, particularly in Calamba and built a business from agriculture.
She was an industrious and educated woman, managing the family's farm and finances.
Teodora used her knowledge to grow the rice, corn, and sugarcane that sustained the family's well-to-do lifestyle.
She also expanded the family business into the areas of textiles, flour, and sugar milling, refining these raw materials and selling the finished staples from a small store on the ground floor of the family home.

-- Teodora had eleven children with Francisco.
They are Saturnina, Paciano, Narcisa, Olympia, Lucia, Maria, José, Concepcion, Josefa, Trinidad and Soledad.
All her children were sent to study in different colleges in Manila, but only Jose was sent to Europe –
as he was inspired to study medicine, particularly ophthalmology, to help his mother due to her failing eyesight. José honored his mom in Memoirs of a Student in Manila, writing, "After God, the mother is everything to man.

-- Teodora’s half-brother, Jose Alberto, wanted to divorce his wife, whom he alleged to be having an affair with another man.
Teodora persuaded him to put up with her and preserve their marriage.
Since then Jose Alberto went often to Calamba to seek advice from Teodora.
This was learned by his wife who then suspected Jose Alberto and Teodora plotting something evil to her.
Later Jose’s wife and an officer of the Guardia Civil then accused Jose Alberto and Teodora of trying to poison Jose Alberto’s wife.
Teodora was named as an accomplice. Jose Alberto, the main suspect.
Quick like a bolt of lightning, Teodora was hauled to jail, by the mayor, Antonio Vivencio del Rosario, a known yes man of the friars.
A judge who did not like the way he was treated at the Mercado-Rizal house, ordered that Teodora be imprisoned in Santa Cruz, a good 50km away capital of Laguna.
She was made to walk the distance, though usual travel was by boat.
She was forbidden to use any vehicle, although her family was willing to pay for it and include her escorts for the ride.
She was to suffer humiliation and hardship as prescribed by those her family had offended.
On the first night of the journey to Santa Cruz, Teodora and his escorts came to village where there was a festival.
Teodora was recognized and invited by one of the prominent families.
The judge, upon learning that Teodora was honoured in the village, was so enraged.
He went to the house she visited.
There was a guard there and the judge knocked and broke his cane on the poor man’s head then beat up the owner of the house.
This obvious case of prejudice was reported by Teodora’s lawyers.
The Supreme Court decided to set her free.
The cruel judge respected the decision but then charged Teodora with contempt of court.
To this, the Supreme Court was persuaded but since Teodora’s wait in prison was longer than the sentence, ordered her release.
Then the lawyer of Jose Alberto charged Teodora with theft.
There was rumor that Teodora borrowed money from his brother.
The lawyer obviously was interested in recovering the money for himself.
This case was heard but dismissed by the court.
Teodora was coerced to make a plea of guilty of which she was promised a pardon, immediate freedom and reunion with her family.
It as all for naught. Freedom Teodora finally regained after two and a half years.
Her freedom was ordered by no less than the Governor General, who was charmed one fiesta day in Laguna by a daring little girl.
So charmed was he that he asked the little girl what she would like him to give her.
“My mother”, was the reply.
The little girl was Soledad, Teodora’s youngest daughter.
A quick inquiry, a quick decision, a new trial ended in Teodora’s acquittal. 

-- After Rizal's death, In August 1898, Narcisa got the body of her brother Rizal, and found out that the body was not even laid out in a coffin.
Because of this, the government offered a lifetime pension as a token of gratitude, after Rizal was declared the national hero of the Philippines.
Teodora even saw the declaration of the monument for Rizal a week before she died.
Alonso died in her home in San Fernando Street, Binondo, Manila.

Melchora
Melchora Aquino de Ramos
-- Melchora Aquino de Ramos,January 6, 1812 – February 19, 1919 was a Filipina revolutionary who became known as "Tandang Sora" ("Elder Sora") because of her age during the Philippine Revolution.
She was known as the "Grand Woman of the Revolution" and the "Mother of Balintawak" for her contributions.
-- Known as the "Mother of Revolution," Tandang Sora was born on January 6, 1812 in Barrio Banlat, Caloocan (the present-day Barangay Tandang Sora, Quezon City). Tandang Sora, daughter of a peasant couple, Juan and Valentina Aquino, never attended school. However, she was apparently literate at an early age and talented as a singer and performed at local events as well as at Mass for her Church. She was also often chosen for the role of Reyna Elena during the "Santacruzan", a processional pageant commemorating Empress Helen's finding of the Cross of Christ, celebrated in the Philippines in May. Later in life, she married Fulgencio Ramos, a cabeza de barrio (village chief), and bore six children. Ramos died when their youngest child was seven and she was left as a single parent for their children. Tandang Sora continued her life as an hermana mayor active in celebrating fiestas, baptisms, and weddings. She worked hard in order to give her children education.
-- In her native town, Tandang Sora operated a store, which became a refuge for the sick and wounded revolutionaries. She fed, gave medical attention to and encouraged the revolutionaries with motherly advice and prayers.
-- Secret meetings of the Katipuneros (revolutionaries) were also held at her house in August 1896.
Thus she earned the names "Woman of Revolution", "Mother of Balintawak", "Mother of the Philippine Revolution", and Tandang Sora. She and her son, Juan Ramos, were present in the Cry of Balintawak and were witnesses to the tearing up of the cedulas.
-- When the Spaniards learned about her activities and her knowledge to the whereabouts of the Katipuneros, she was arrested by the guardia civil on August 29, 1896. She was held captive in the house of a cabeza de barangay of Pasong Putik, Novaliches and then transferred to Bilibid Prison in Manila. While in prison, she was interrogated but she refused to divulge any information. She was then deported to Guam, Marianas Islands by Governor General Ramón Blanco on September 2. In Guam, she and a woman named Segunda Puentes were placed under house arrest in the residence of a Don Justo Dungca.
-- After the United States took control of the Philippines in 1898, Tandang Sora, like other exiles, returned to the Philippines in 1903. She died at her daughter Saturnina's house in Banlat on February 19, 1919 at the age of 107. Her remains were first interred at the Mausoleum of the Veterans of the Revolution at the Manila North Cemetery. These were then transferred to the Himlayang Pilipino Memorial Park in Quezon City in 1970 and finally at the Tandang Sora National Shrine in 2012.

Newspapers

LA LIGA FILIPINA
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ligafilipina

La Liga Filipina

Dr. José Rizal, Founder; Ambrosio Salvador, President; Agustin de la Rosa, Fiscal; Bonifacio Arevalo, Treasurer; and Deodato Arellano, Secretary. 


Rizal’s liga When upon his return to the Philippines in July, 1892, Rizal organized the La Liga Filipina, this constituted a forward step in the reformist ideas of the times in the sense that the new group sought to involve the people directly in the reform movement. 

Many elements of society who were anxious for change were attracted to the Liga, among them, Andres Bonifacio who became one of the founders of the organization.


As listed in the constitution Rizal prepared, the Liga’s aims were : 

1. To unite the whole archipelago into one compact, vigorous, and homogenous body; 2. Mutual protection in every want and necessity; 

3. Defense against all violence and injustice; 

4. Encouragement of instruction, agriculture, and commerce; 

5. and Study and application of reforms. 


As Rizal envisioned it, the league was to be a sort of mutual aid and self-help society dispensing scholarship funds and legal aid, loaning capital and setting up cooperatives. 

These were innocent, even naive objectives that could hardly alleviate the social ills of those times, but the Spanish authorities were so alarmed that they arrested Rizal on July 6, 1892, a scant four days after the Liga was organized. 

With Rizal deported to Dapitan, the Liga became inactive until, through the efforts of Domingo Franco and Andres Bonifacio, it was reorganized. 

Apolinario Mabini became the secretary of the Supreme Council. 

Upon his suggestion, the organization decided to declare its support for La Solidaridad and the reforms it advocated, raise funds for the paper, and defray the expenses of deputies advocating reforms for the country before the Spanish Cortes.



The Split
At first the Liga was quite active. Bonifacio in particular exerted great efforts to organize chapters in various districts of Manila. 

A few months later, however, the Supreme Council of the Liga dissolved the society. The reformist leaders found out that most of the popular councils which Bonifacio had organized were no longer willing to send funds to the Madrid propagandists because, like Bonifacio, they had become convinced that peaceful agitation for reforms was futile. Afraid that the more radical rank and file members might capture the organization and unwilling to involve themselves in an enterprise which would surely invite reprisals from the authorities, the leaders of the Liga opted for dissolution.

The Liga membership split into two groups : 
the conservatives formed the Cuerpo de Compromisarios which pledged to continue supporting the La Solidaridad while the radicals led by Bonifacio devoted themselves to a new and secret society, the Katipunan, which Bonifacio had organized on the very day Rizal was deported to Dapitan.

LA SOLIDARIDAD
lasolidaridad-1

La Solidaridad

 On February 15, 1889, the first issue of La Solidaridad came out and its editorial expressed its aim :


 Our aspirations are modest, very modest. Our program, aside from being simple, is clear: to combat reaction, to stop all retrogressive steps, to extol and adopt liberal ideas, to defend progress; in a word, to be a propagandist, above all, of democratic ideas in order to make these supreme in all nations here and across the seas. 

 The aims, therefore, of La Solidaridad are described as to collect, to gather, libertarian ideas which are manifested daily in the field of politics, science, art, literature, commerce, agriculture and industry.

 We shall also discuss all problems relating to the general interest of the nation and seek solutions to those problems in high-level and democratic manner.

 With regard to the Philippines, since she needs the most help, not being represented in the Cortes, we shall pay particular attention to the defence of her democratic rights, the accomplishment of which is our patriotic duty.

 That nation of eight million souls should not, must not be the exclusive preserve of theocracy and traditionalism.

 The contributors of the La Solidaridad were mostly Filipinos, such as 
Marcelo H. del Pilar (Plaridel) 
Dr. Jose Rizal (Laon Laan) 
Mariano Ponce (Naning, Kalipulo, Tigbalang) 
Antonio Luna (Taga Ilog) 
Jose Ma. Panganiban (Jomapa) 
Dr. Pedro Paterno 
Antonio Ma. Regidor 
Isabelo delos Reyes 
Eduardo de Lete 
Jose Alejandrino 

 Some friends of the Propaganda Movement also contributed, notably Professor Blumentritt ( Austrian ethnologist ) and Dr. Morayta ( Spanish Historian, university professor and statesman ).

 In the last issue of La Solidaridad (November 15, 1895), M.H. del Pilar wrote his farewell editorial saying :
 We are persuaded that no sacrifices are too little to win the rights and the liberty of a nation that is oppressed by slavery.

 The desire to form a purely Filipino organization was fulfilled with the establishment in Barcelona on December 13, 1888 if La Solidaridad. This organization was a sort of rival of Morayta’s Madrid group although the two organizations joined together in a petition addressed to the Minister of the Colonies asking for representation in the Cortes, abolition of censorship of the press, and prohibition of the practice of deporting citizens merely through administrative orders.

 The president of La Solidaridad was Rizal’s cousin, Galicano Apacible. Among the other officers were Graciano Lopez-Jaena, vice-president, and Mariano Ponce, treasurer. Rizal, in London at the time, was named Honorary President. Unfortunately, Apacible could not hold the wrangling reformists together. It took the prestige of Rizal and the political wisdom of del Pilar to unite the Filipinos in Spain and to coordinate their efforts.

 But finally, in February 15, 1889, the Filipino propagandists were able to get together behind a new publication which they called La Solidaridad, and which for its more than five years of its existence became the principal organ of the propaganda movement. It was founded on February 15, 1889 and existed up to November 15, 1895. Its first editor was Graciano Lopez-Jaena but he was soon succeeded by Marcelo H. del Pilar. La Solidaridad was a political propaganda paper with a liberal, reformist orientation dedicated to the task of fighting reaction in all its forms.

 Certainly an important factor limiting the influence of the propagandists was the fact that they wrote in Spanish, a language virtually unknown to the masses. Furthermore, censorship seriously limited the inflow of such reading matter and made possession of it very risky. But despite all the foregoing, the influence of the Propaganda on the revolution cannot be discounted. True, La Solidaridad itself, Rizal’s novels, and other propaganda material had limited circulation, but these reached the local ilustrados who in most instances came to lead the revolutionary forces in their provinces. The fund-raising efforts of local committees and Masonic lodges and the clandestine attempts to distribute these materials involved more individuals in the campaign for reforms. The very attempts of the government to stop the entry of La Solidaridad and prevent its distribution highlighted the lack of freedoms that the propagandists were condemning.

 If readership was small, seepage of information to other groups certainly occurred. And because what the propagandists wrote were accurate reflections of reality, a feeling of empathy developed wherever news of their work was heard. The articulation of their own feelings of oppression heightened the ferment of the people and herein lay the continuity between reformism and revolution despite their diametrically opposed means and goals.

Mga Pangulo ng Pilipinas (Presidents)

This lists the recognized sixteen (16) Filipino Presidents/heads of state, in the history of the Philippines. 

The recognized head of state since discovery of the Philippines in 1521 was the King of Spain, represented by the Governor General.

01_Emilio_Aguinaldo
President Aguinaldo
-- Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was the First and only President of the
First Republic under the Malolos Constitution of 1899.

-- Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo served in various capacities before
he became the First President of the First Republic.
President of the Revolutionary Government ( Tejeros Convention )

23 March 1897 – 1 November 1897
President of the Biak-na-Bato Republic
2 November, 1897 – 15 December, 1897

Dictator of the Philippines
24 May 1898 – 23 June 1898

President of the Revolutionary Government
23 June, 1898 – 23 January 1899

Gen Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain on June 12, 1898.
He was elected the First President of the First Republic under
the Malolos Constitution by the National Assembly.
He was inaugurated as President on January 23, 1899. 

-- His term ended in April 1, 1901,
after he was captured by the US military in Palanan, Isabela,
and pledged allegiance to the United States.
He was born March 22, 1869 in Kawit Cavite.
He passed away on February 6, 1964 in Quezon City at the age of 95.
He is buried at the Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit, Cavite.

02_Manuel_L_Quezon
President M.L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, 19 August 1878 – 1 August 1944, also referred to by his initials MLQ, was a Filipino statesman,
soldier and politician who served as president of
the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944.
He was the first Filipino to head a government of the entire Philippines, and is considered to have been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (1899–1901),
whom Quezon defeated in the 1935 presidential election.

During his presidency, Quezon tackled the problem of
landless peasants in the countryside.

His other major decisions include the reorganization of the islands' military defense, approval of a recommendation for government reorganization, the promotion of settlement and development in Mindanao, dealing with the foreign stranglehold on Philippine trade and commerce, proposals for land reform, and opposing graft and corruption within the government.
He established a government-in-exile in the U.S. with the outbreak of World War II and the threat of Japanese invasion.

It was during his exile in the U.S. that he died of tuberculosis
at Saranac Lake, New York.

He was buried in the Arlington National Cemetery until the end of
World War II, when his remains were moved to Manila.
His final resting place is the Quezon Memorial Circle.

In 2015, the Board of the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation approved a posthumous bestowal of the Wallenberg Medal upon President Quezon and to the people of the Philippines for having reached out, between 1937 and 1941, to the victims of the Holocaust. President Benigno Aquino III and then-94-year-old Maria Zenaida Quezon Avanceña, the daughter of the former president,
were informed of this recognition.

Scholars have also described Quezon's leadership as a
'de facto dictatorship' and that he was "the first Filipino politician to integrate all levels of politics into a synergy of power",
having removed his term limits as president and turning the Senate
into an extension of the executive through constitutional amendments.

04_Jose_P_Laurel
President Jose P. Laurel
Jose Paciano Laurel y Garcia was the president of the Japanese-Sponsored Republic of the Philippines during World War II,
from 1943 to 1945.
Laurel was not subsequently officially recognized as a Philippine president until the administration of Diosdado Macapagal.
Laurel remains one of the most important
Supreme Court justices in Philippine history.
He authored several leading cases still analyzed to this day
that defined the parameters of the branches of government
as well as their powers.
Prior to his Presidency he was Secretary of the Interior
(Leonard Wood cabinet)
Senator for the Fifth Senatorial District
(Batangas, Mindoro, Tayabas, Cavite, and Marinduque)
7th Legislature (1925-1928)
8th Legislature (1928-1931)
9th Legislature (1931-1934)
10th Legislature (1934-1935)
Majority floor leader (1928-1931)
Delegate, (1934-1935) Constitutional Convention
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court (1936-1941)
Secretary of Justice (Quezon cabinet, 1941)
Acting Chief Justice of the Supreme Court ( 1941 )
Commissioner of Justice, Commissioner of the Interior (1942-1943)
(Japanese Occupation)
President, Preparatory Committee on Philippine Independence,
(1942-1943) (Japanese Occupation)
Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in World War II,
Laurel was instructed by President Manuel L. Quezon to remain in Manila.
President Quezon fled to Corregidor and then to the United States
to establish a government-in-exile.
Laurel’s prewar, close relationship with Japanese officials
(a son had been sent to study at the Imperial Military Academy in Tokyo,
and Laurel had received an honorary doctorate from Tokyo University),
placed him in a good position to interact with
the Japanese occupation forces.
In October 1943, Laurel was selected, by the National Assembly,
under vigorous Japanese influence, to serve as President.
The presidency of Laurel understandably remains one of the
most controversial in Philippine history.
After the war, he would be denounced in some quarters as
a war collaborator or even a traitor,
although his indictment for treason was superseded
by President Roxas’ Amnesty Proclamation,
and evidenced by his subsequent electoral success.
Laurel is considered as doing his best in interceding, protecting
and looking after the best interests of the Filipinos against
the harsh wartime Japanese military rule and policies.
During his presidency, the Philippines faced a crippling food shortage
which demanded much of Laurel’s attention.
Laurel also resisted in vain Japanese demands that the Philippines issue
a formal declaration of war against the United States.
Laurel’s term ended soon after the Japanese forces surrendered
to the United States on August 15, 1945.
Laurel arrested for collaborating with the Japanese,
and later charged with 132 counts of treason.
In 1948 President Manuel Roxas signed a general amnesty.
Laurel later won a senate seat in 1951.
Laurel founded the Lyceum of the Philippines University in 1952.
On November 6, 1959, he died of massive heart attack and stroke
at the Lourdes Hospital in Manila.
03_Sergio_Omena
President Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon,
and rose to the Presidency upon Quezon’s death in 1944.
While Manuel Quezon was aide-de-camp to Gen emilio Aguinaldo in 1898, 
Sergio Osmeña was a personal aide to the Spanish governor of Cebu in 1898.
He later served as Councilor, Municipality of Cebu (1903)
Provincial Fiscal of Cebu and Negros Oriental (1904)
Governor of Cebu (1906)
Assemblyman, then Representative,
representing 2nd District of Cebu (1907-1922)
1st Legislature (1907-1910)
2nd Legislature (1910-1913)
3rd Legislature (1913-1916)
4th Legislature (1916-1919)
5th Legislature (1919-1921)
Speaker of the Philippine Assembly, (1907-1916)
Speaker of the House of Representatives (1916-1922)
Senator for the Tenth Senatorial District (Cebu) (1922-1935)
Sixth Legislature (1922-1925)
Seventh Legislature (1925-1928)
Eighth Legislature (1928-1931)
9th Legislature (1931-1934)
10th Legislature (1934-1935)
Senate President Pro Tempore (1922-1934)
Vice President of the Commonwealth (1935-1944)
Secretary of Public Instruction (1935-1938)
He ran for election to the first Philippine Assembly of 1907 and
was elected Speaker of that body.
Osmeña was only 29 and already the highest-ranking Filipino official.
Osmeña became president of the Commonwealth on Quezon’s death in 1944.
He returned to the Philippines the same year with General Douglas
MacArthur and the liberation forces.
After the war, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth government and
the various executive departments.
He continued the fight for Philippine independence.
His term as fourth President (of the Philippine Commonwealth) overlapped with that Jose P. Laurel, third President ( of the Second Republic under the Japanese ) until the end of World war II.
For the presidential election of 1946,
Osmeña refused to campaign, saying that the Filipino people knew
of his record of 40 years of honest and faithful service.
He was defeated by Manuel Roxas, who won 54 percent of the vote and became the fifth President and first President of the independent
Third Republic of the Philippines.
After his defeat in the 1946 election, Osmeña retired to his home in Cebu.
He served in the Council of State of the Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay and
Garcia administrations.
He died at the age of 83 on October 19, 1961
at the Veterann’s Memorial Hospital in Quezon City.  
He is buried in the Manila North Cemetary in Manila.
05_Manuel-Roxas
President Roxas
Manuel Acuña Roxas (January 1, 1892 April 15, 1948) was the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines.
 
He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946
until his abrupt death in 1948.
His reign as Philippine president is also the shortest;
1 year 10 months and 18 days.
When the Congress of the Philippines was convened in 1945,
the legislators elected in 1941 chose Roxas as Senate President.

In the Philippine national elections of 1946,
Roxas ran for president as the nominee of
the liberal wing of the Nacionalista Party.
He had the staunch support of General MacArthur.
His opponent was Sergio Osmeña, who refused to campaign,
saying that the Filipino people knew his reputation.

However, in the April 23, 1946 election,
Roxas won 54 percent of the vote,
and the Liberal Party won a majority in the legislature.
When the Philippines gained independence from the United States
on July 4, 1946, he became the first president of the new republic.
In 1948, Roxas declared amnesty for those arrested
for collaborating with the Japanese during World War II,
except for those who had committed violent crimes.
Manuel Roxas married Trinidad R. de Leon of Bulacan.
They had two (2) children – Ma. Rosario “Ruby”, married to
Vicente Roxas; and Gerardo “Gerry” who married Judy Araneta.
06_Elpidio_Quirino
President Quirino
Elpidio Rivera Quirino (born Elpidio Quirino y Rivera; November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was a Filipino lawyer and politician who served as
the sixth President of the Philippines from 1948 to 1953.
A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became
a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925.
He was then elected as senator from 1925 to 1935. In 1934,
he became a member of the Philippine independence commission
that was sent to Washington, D.C., which secured the passage of Tydings–McDuffie Act to American Congress.
In 1935, he was also elected to the convention that drafted
the 1935 constitution for the newly established Commonwealth.
In the new government, he served as secretary of the interior
and finance under President Manuel Quezon's cabinet.
After World War II, Quirino was elected vice-president in the 1946 election, consequently the second and last for the Commonwealth
and first for the third republic.
After the death of the incumbent president Manuel Roxas in 1948,
he succeeded the presidency.
He won the president's office under Liberal Party ticket,
defeating Nacionalista vice president and former president
José P. Laurel as well as fellow Liberalista and former
Senate President José Avelino.
The Quirino administration was generally challenged by the Hukbalahaps, who ransacked towns and barrios.
Quirino ran for president again in 1953 but was defeated
by Ramon Magsaysay.

Elpidio Quirino was born on November 16, 1890 in Vigan, Ilocos Sur.
He was the third child of Don Mariano Quebral Quirino of Caoayan,
Ilocos Sur and Doña Gregoria Mendoza Rivera of Agoo, La Union.
He is a Chinese mestizo descendant, just like many other presidents.
Gregoria gave birth to Quirino in the Vigan town jail,
where the family lived while Mariano worked as its warden.
Quirino was baptized on November 19, 1890.
Quirino spent his early years in Aringay, La Union.
He studied and graduated from his elementary education to his
native Caoayan, where he became a barrio teacher.
He received secondary education at Vigan High School,
then went to Manila where he worked as junior computer technician
at the Bureau of Lands and as property clerk
in the Manila police department.
He graduated from Manila High School in 1911 and also passed
the civil service examination, first-grade.

Quirino attended the University of the Philippines in Manila.
In 1915, he earned his law degree from the university's College of Law, and was admitted to the bar later that year.
He was engaged into the private practice of law.
During his early years as an adult he was inducted into
the Pan Xenia Fraternity, a professional trade fraternity in the
University of the Philippines, in the year 1950.

His daughter, Victoria, became the youngest hostess
of Malacañang Palace, at 16 years old, when Quirino ascended
to the presidency on April 17, 1948.
She married Luis M. Gonzalez in 1950, who became
Philippine ambassador to Spain from 1966 to 1971.
07_Ramon_Magsaysay
President Magsaysay
Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay (August 31, 1907 – March 17, 1957) was
the third President of the Third Republic of the Philippines from December 30, 1953 until his death in a plane crash in 1957.
He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party.
In the Election of 1953, Magsaysay was decisively elected president
over the incumbent Elpidio Quirino.
He was sworn into office wearing the Barong Tagalog,
a first by a Philippine president.
As president, he was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War.
He led the foundation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
also known as the Manila Pact of 1954, which aimed to defeat communist-Marxist movements in South East Asia and
the Southwestern Pacific.
During his term, he made Malacalang Palace literally a
“house of the people”, opening its gates to the public.
One example of his integrity followed a demonstration flight aboard a new plane belonging to the Philippines Air Force (PAF).
President Magsaysay asked what the operating costs per hour
were for that type of aircraft, then wrote a personal check to the PAF, covering the cost of his flight.
On March 16, 1957 Magsaysay left Manila for Cebu City where
he spoke at three educational institutions.
That same night, at about 1 a.m., he boarded the presidential plane
“Mt. Pinatubo”, a C-47, heading back to Manila.
In the early morning hours of March 17, his plane was reported missing.
It was late in the afternoon that day that newspapers reported that the airplane had crashed on Mt. Manunggal in Cebu and that 25 of the 26 passengers and crew aboard were killed.
Only newspaperman Nestor Mata survived.
Vice President Carlos P. Garcia, who was on an official visit to Australia
at the time, assumed the presidency to serve out the last eight months of Magsaysay’s term.
08_Carlos_P_Garcia
President Garcia
Carlos Polistico Garcia (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was
the 8th President of the Philippines.
The Vice President of President Ramon Magsaysay, he assumed the presidency upon Magsaysay’s death in a plane crash in 1957.
Garcia won the presidential elections held later that year,
but was defeated for re-election in 1961 by his Vice-President,
Diosdado Macapagal.
His administration was known for its “Filipino First” policy,
which put the interests of the Filipino people above those
of foreigners and of the ruling party.
Garcia was born in Talibon, Bohol to Policronio Garcia and
Ambrosia Polistico (who were both natives of Bangued, Abra).
He is featured as the lone star in the Bohol provincial flag as the only Philippine President produced by the province.
He assumed the presidency after Ramõn Magsaysay died in
a plane crash on March 17, 1957, and was elected later the same year,
in the Election 1957, to a full term.
During his administration, he acted on the Bohlen-Serrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years
to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years.
He also exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known.
This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors.
He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country.
He also made a program focused on thriftiness.
At the end of his second term, he ran for re-election in the Election 1961
in November 1961, but was defeated by Diosdado Macapagal,
who served as Vice-President under him, but belonged to
the opposing Liberal Party; in the Philippines the President
and the Vice-President are elected separately.
09_Diosdado_Macpagal
President Macapagal
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal, GCrM, KGCR
(September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was a Filipino statesman
who served as the 9th President of the Philippines.
He was elected in 1961, defeating the re-election bid of Carlos P. Garcia.
He did not win in his own re-election bid in 1965,
losing to Ferdinand Marcos.
He was also known by his nickname “The Incorruptible”.
His daughter Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was also president
of the Philippines.
He is also known for changing the day of Philippine Independence,
which was then July 4, 1946, into June 12, 1898 Macapagal was born
in Lubao, Pampanga, to Urbano Macapagal and Romana Pangan.
He graduated valedictorian in the Lubao Elementary School,
graduated with second highest rating in the Pampanga High School.
His family was poor (hence his nickname “poor boy from Lubao”),
but with the help of Honorio Ventura, the Secretary of Interior
at that time, he studied law and graduated in the University of Santo Tomas and pursued and earned the postgraduate degree of
Doctor of Civil Law and Ph.D. in Economics in the same university.
He finished his law degree in 1936 and was the bar topnotcher
when he took the bar examination in the same yearwith a rating of 89.95 In 1971, Macapagal was elected president of the constitutional convention that drafted what became the 1973 constitution.
He passed away in April 21, 1997 at aged 86 in Makati City, Metro Manila.
10_Ferdinand_E_Marcos
President F. Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edral – Marcos
(September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989)
was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.
He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives (1949-1959) and a member of the Philippine Senate (1959-1965).
During World War II he claimed to be the leader of Ang Maharlika,
a guerrilla force in northern Luzon.
In 1963 he became Senate President.
As Philippine president and strongman, his greatest achievement was in the fields of infrastructure development and international diplomacy.
However, his administration was marred by massive authoritative government corruption, despotism, nepotism, political repression
and human rights violations.
He has also led a large personality cult in the Philippines during his regime, which was often compared to Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler,
Mao Zedong, Saparmurat Niyazov, and Kim-Sung.
In 1986 he was removed from power during the People Power Revolution after it was revealed he had moved hundreds of millions of dollars
of embezzled public funds to the United States.
11_Corazon C. Aquino
President Corazon Aquino
Maria Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino
born Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco on January 25, 1933),
widely known as Cory Aquino, was the 11th President of the Philippines, serving from 1986 to 1992.
She was the first female President of the Philippines and was
Asia’s first female President.
She is a world-renowned advocate of democracy, peace,
women’s empowerment, and religious piety.
A self-proclaimed “plain housewife”, Aquino is the widow of Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., a leading figure in the political opposition against the autocratic rule of President Ferdinand Marcos.
After her husband was assassinated upon his return from exile in the United States on August 21, 1983, Aquino, who had no prior political experience, became a focal point and unifying force of
the opposition against Marcos.
She was drafted to run against Marcos in the 1986
snap presidential elections.
After Marcos was proclaimed the winner despite widespread reports
of electoral fraud, Aquino was installed as President by the peaceful 1986 People Power Revolution.
Aquino was diagnosed with colorectal cancer in 2008
and died on 1 August 2009.
Her son Benigno Aquino III served as president of the Philippines
from 2010 to 2016.
After her passing, monuments were established and public landmarks were named in honor of Corazon Aquino all around the Philippines.
She is continually highly regarded by her native country,
where she is called the Mother of Democracy.
12_Fidel_V_Ramos
President F. "Eddie" Ramos
Fidel Valdez Ramos, CCLH, GCS, KGCR; born March 18, 1928,
popularly known as FVR and Eddie, is a retired Filipino general
and politician who served as the 12th president of the Philippines
from 1992 to 1998.
He is the only career military officer who reached the rank of five-star general/admiral de jure who rose from second lieutenant up to commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence
in the Philippine economy.
At age 93, he is currently the oldest living former Philippine president.
He was the first, and to date the only, non-Roman Catholic president
of the Philippines.
During the authoritarian regime of President Ferdinand Marcos, Ramos was head of the Philippine Constabulary, implementing Marcos’ declaration of martial law.
In the 1986 People Power Revolution, Ramos defected from
the government and was a key figure in the civilian demonstrations
that forced Marcos into exile.

He ascended the ranks in the Philippine military early in his career
and became Chief of the Philippine Constabulary and Vice Chief-of-Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines during the term of President Ferdinand Marcos.

During the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, Ramos was hailed as a hero by many Filipinos for his decision to break away from the administration of President Marcos and pledge allegiance and loyalty to the newly established government of President Corazon Aquino.

Prior to his election as president, Ramos served in the cabinet of President Corazon Aquino, first as chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), and later as Secretary of National Defense
from 1986 to 1991.
He was credited for the creation of the Philippine Army's Special Forces and the Philippine National Police Special Action Force.

Since his retirement, he has remained active in politics,
serving as adviser to his successors.
13_Joseph Ejercito Estrada
President J. Estrada
Joseph Ejercito Estrada, KGCR, born Jose Marcelo Ejercito; April 19, 1937, also known by the nickname Erap, is a Filipino politician, former actor, and a kleptocrat who served as the 13th president of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, 9th vice president of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998,
and the 21st mayor of the City of Manila, the country's capital,
from 2013 to 2019.
In 2001, he became the first chief executive in Asia to be formally impeached and resigned from power.
He is widely considered to be a kleptocrat*.
(*corrupt politicians that enrich themselves secretly outside the rule of law, through kickbacks, bribes, and special favors)

Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over a hundred films in an acting career spanning some three decades.
He also worked as a model, beginning as a fashion and ramp model
at the age of 13.
He used his popularity as an actor to make gains in politics, serving as Mayor of San Juan from 1969 to 1986, as Senator from 1987 to 1992,
then as Vice President under President Fidel V. Ramos from 1992 to 1998.

Estrada was elected president in 1998 with a wide margin of votes separating him from the other challengers, and was sworn into the presidency on June 30, 1998.
In 2000 he declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and captured its headquarters and other camps.
Allegations of corruption spawned an impeachment trial in the Senate, and in 2001 Estrada was ousted by "People Power 2" after the prosecution walked out of the impeachment court when the senator-judges voted "NO" in the opening of the second envelope.

In 2007, Estrada was sentenced by a special division of the Sandiganbayan to reclusión perpetua for the plunder of $80 million
from the government, but was later granted pardon by President
and his former deputy Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.
He ran for president again in the 2010 presidential election, but was defeated by Senator Benigno Aquino III by a wide margin.
He later served as Mayor of Manila for two terms, from 2013 to 2019.
14_gloria-macapagal-arroyo
President G. Macapagal Arroyo
Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal Arroyo, born April 5, 1947,
is a Filipina academic and politician who served as the 14th president
of the Philippines from 2001 until 2010. 
She is the longest serving President of the Philippines
since Ferdinand Marcos.
Before her accession to the presidency, she served as the
10th vice president of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001,
and was a senator from 1992 to 1998.
After her presidency, she was elected as the representative of Pampanga's 2nd district in 2010 and later became the Speaker of the House of Representatives from 2018 until her retirement in 2019.
She is the first woman to hold two of the highest offices in the country: Vice President and Speaker of the House.

The daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal,
she studied economics at Georgetown University in the United States, where she began a lasting friendly relationship with her classmate
and future U.S. President Bill Clinton.
She then became a professor of economics at Ateneo de Manila University, where her eventual successor, President Benigno Aquino III, was one of her students.
She entered government in 1987, serving as the assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazon Aquino, Benigno's mother.
After serving as a senator from 1992 to 1998, she was elected to the vice presidency under President Joseph Estrada, despite having run
on an opposing ticket.

After Estrada was accused of corruption, she resigned her cabinet position as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development and joined the growing opposition against the president, who faced impeachment.
Estrada was soon forced out from office by the Second
EDSA Revolution in 2001, and Arroyo was sworn into the presidency
by Chief Justice Hilario Davide, KGCR, on January 20 that year.
In 2003, the Oakwood mutiny occurred after signs of a martial law declaration were seen under her rule.
She was elected to a full six-year term in the controversial 2004 presidential election, and was sworn in on June 30, 2004.
Following her presidency, she was elected to the House of Representatives through her home district, making her the second Philippine president—after José P. Laurel to pursue a lower office
after their presidency.

On November 18, 2011, Arroyo was arrested and held at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City under charges of electoral sabotage, but released on bail in July 2012.
These charges were later dropped for lack of evidence.
She was rearrested in October 2012, on charges of misuse
of $8.8 million in state lottery funds.
She was given a hospital arrest, allegedly due to "life-threatening
health conditions" certified by her doctors.
On July 19, 2016, she was acquitted by the Supreme Court by
a vote of 11-4 under the administration of her ally, Rodrigo Duterte.
Also, the Supreme Court declared the DOJ's hold departure
order unconstitutional.
Her lawyers afterwards stated that Arroyo no longer needed
her medical paraphernalia, releasing her from the hospital.

She has since been a member of the Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language after she announced her support to bring back Spanish as an official language of the Philippines during her 9-year presidency.

On July 23, 2018, she was elected as the Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines under the Duterte Administration, controversially replacing Pantaleon Alvarez.
She spearheaded various controversial bills, including a bill that sought to lower the age of criminal liability to 12 years old.
15_Benigno_Aquino_III
President B. S. Aquino III
Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III, KGCR,
February 8, 1960 – June 24, 2021, also known as Noynoy Aquino and colloquially as PNoy, was a Filipino politician who served as
the 15th president of the Philippines from 2010 to 2016.
He is the third of the five children of Benigno Aquino Jr.,
who was then the vice governor of Tarlac, and Corazon Cojuangco, daughter of a prominent Tarlac businessman.
He has four sisters, namely: Maria "Ballsy" Elena, Aurora "Pinky" Corazon, Victoria "Viel" Elisa, and Kristina "Kris" Bernadette.
He attended the Ateneo de Manila University in Quezon City
for his elementary, high school, and college education.
Aquino finished his Bachelor of Arts (major in economics) degree
from the Ateneo de Manila University in 1981.
He was one of the students of former professor of economics at the Ateneo de Manila University, former President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.

Before being elected president, Aquino was a member of the House of Representatives and Senate from 1998 to 2010, and also served as a deputy speaker of the House of Representatives from 2004 to 2006.

The son of politician Benigno Aquino Jr. and President Corazon Aquino, he was a fourth-generation politician as part of the Aquino family. 
On September 9, 2009, shortly after the death of his mother, he officially announced his candidacy in the 2010 presidential election,
which he would go on to win.
He was sworn into office as the 15th president of the Philippines on
June 30, 2010, succeeding Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.
His presidency was marked by stabilizing and growing the nation's economy into its highest in decades, and the country was dubbed as a "Rising Tiger".
Aquino is also credited for his confrontational foreign policy.
His administration filed an arbitration case, Philippines v. China,
before the Permanent Court of Arbitration in an attempt to invalidate China's claims in the South China Sea and asserted his own country's claims in the area; the court ruled in favor of the Philippines.
Aquino received criticism for the Mamasapano clash, a botched police operation that killed 44 members of the Special Action Force,
and several other issues.
His non-renewable term ended on June 30, 2016, and
he was succeeded by Rodrigo Duterte.
After leaving office, Aquino was the subject of legal actions
over his role in the Mamasapano clash and for approval of
a controversial budget project.
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President Rodrigo R. Duterte (DU30)
Rodrigo Roa Duterte, KGCR, born March 28, 1945, also known as Digong, Rody is a Filipino politician who is the 16th and incumbent president
of the Philippines.
He is the chairperson of PDP–Laban,
the ruling political party in the Philippines.
Duterte is the first president of the Philippines to be from Mindanao and is the oldest, beginning his term at age 71;
the record was previously held by Sergio Osmeña at the age of 65.

Born in Maasin, Leyte (now Southern Leyte), Duterte moved to Davao as a child where his father, Vicente Duterte, served as provincial governor.
He studied political science at the Lyceum of the Philippines University, graduating in 1968, before obtaining a law degree from
San Beda College of Law in 1972.
He then worked as a lawyer and was a prosecutor for Davao City,
before becoming vice mayor and, subsequently, mayor of the city
in the wake of the 1986 People Power Revolution.
Duterte won seven terms and served as mayor of Davao
for over 22 years.

Duterte's 2016 presidential campaign led to his election victory.
During his presidency, his domestic policy has focused on combating the illegal drug trade by initiating the controversial war on drugs, fighting crime, and corruption, launching a massive infrastructure plan and a proposed shift to a federal system of government.
He also oversaw the controversial burial of Ferdinand Marcos,
the 2017 Battle of Marawi and the government's response
to the COVID-19 pandemic.
He declared the intention to pursue an "independent foreign policy",
and strengthened relations with China and Russia.
He initially announced his candidacy for vice president in
the 2022 election, but in October 2021, he announced that
he was retiring from politics.
On November 15, 2021, he filed his candidacy for Senator.

His political positions have been described as populist and nationalist.
Duterte's political success has been aided by his vocal support for the extrajudicial killing of drug users and other criminals.
His career has sparked numerous protests and attracted controversy, particularly over human rights issues and his controversial comments.
Duterte has repeatedly confirmed to have personally killed criminal suspects during his term as mayor of Davao.
Extrajudicial killings allegedly committed by the Davao Death Squad between 1998 and 2016 during Duterte's mayoralty have also been scrutinised by human rights groups and the Office of the Ombudsman; the victims were mainly alleged drug users, alleged petty criminals,
and street children.
The International Criminal Court also opened a preliminary investigation into Duterte's drug war in 2018, prompting Duterte to withdraw
the Philippines from the body in response.
He is the only president in the Philippines not to declare
his assets and liabilities.

First Shots of the Philippine Revolution

August 23, 1896

Cry of Pugadlawin

cry of pugadlawin
The revolution began with Bonifacio and his men tearing up their cedulas.
A valiant Katipunero, Simplicio Acabe, became the first casualty of the revolution.
August 30, 1896

Battle of San Juan – Battle of Pinaglabanan

El_Deposito,_depósito_de_agua_de_Manila
Battle of San Juan
Bonifacio, leading his ragtag army of poorly armed and untrained Katipuneros, attacked the polverin (powder depot) of San Juan which was defended by 100 well-armed and trained artillerists and infantrymen.
More than 200 Katipuneros were taken prisoner and 153 died.
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Battle of Pinaglabanan
Almost simultaneously, the people of Santa Mesa, Pandacan, Pateros, Taguig, San Pedo, Makati, Caloocan, Balik-balik, and San Juan del Monte in Manila, and San Francisco de Malabon, Kawit and Noveleta in Cavite rose up in arms.
August 30, 1896

Martial Law proclaimed

bonifacio-revolt-sm
In the afternoon of August 30, afternoon of the morning battle at San Juan, Governor General Blanco issued a proclamation declaring a state of war on eight Luzon provinces
— Manila, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija and Tarlac.
August 31, 1896

Kawit Revolt – Liberation of Noveleta

BattleofNoveleta
In Cavite, the uprisings were more successful, because they had able military commanders like Emilio Aguinaldo who led the revolt in Kawit on August 31, and Mariano Alvarez who liberated Noveleta on the same day.
Other military leaders rose to prominence, notably Artemio Ricarte, Tomas Mascardo, Juan Cailles, Vito Belarmino, Mariano Trias and Marcelino Aure.
September 2, 1896

Cry of Nueva Ecija

cryofnuevaecija
In Nueva Ecija, two thousand revolucionarios under General Mariano Llanera, municipal captain of Cabiao, attacked the Spanish Garrison in San Isidro on September 2.
The assault was carried out in a flamboyant manner wearing red ribbons, the revolutionaries first paraded down the principal streets to the music of the Cabiao Musikong Bumbong band.
Their leader cut dashing figures on horseback. Then, armed only with bolos and pointed sticks, the revolutionary soldiers attacked.
The Filipinos held the town for three days but were forced out after a furious battle against fresh Spanish troops.
September 5, 1896

Battle of Imus

Battle_of_Imus
Emilio Aguinaldo, mayor of Kawit, was then known as Capitan Miong.
He won a signal victory in Imus on September 5, 1896 against the forces if General Ernesto Aguirre. From then on, he became General Miong, the hero of the Cavitños.
September 6, 1896

Execution of the 4 katipunan leaders captured in the battle of San Juan

executionkatipunan
The four Katipunan leaders taken prisoner in the Battle of San Juan
— Sancho Valenzuela, Ramon Peralta, Modesto Sarmiento, and Eugenio Silvestre —
were executed by a firing squad at the Luneta, Manila
September 12, 1896

Execution of thirteen martyrs

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Thirteen martyrs of Cavite were executed in front of San Felipe Fort in the Cavite arsenal.
November 9-11, 1896

Battle of Binakayan – Battle of Dalahican

Battle of Binakayan – Battle of Dalahican
The twin battles in Binakayan (a barrio in Kawit) and Dalahican (then a barrio of Noveleta) were decidedly brilliant.
They were the first humiliating defeat of the Spanish army.

The Philippine Independence June 12, 1898

Proclamation of Independence

independence

Lupang Hinirang

Undoubtedly one of the most significant dates in the Philippine’s history is Independence Day because it marks the nation’s independence from the Spanish rule on June 12, 1898.
The Filipinos all over the world largely celebrate this day.

On Independence Day many people such as government officials, employees, and students, participate in nationwide parades.
However, the police and military parade in Manila headed by the country’s president is always the highlight of the day, followed by a speech and a 21-gun salute.
Many Filipinos spend the day in parks and malls.

Many Filipino communities abroad also celebrate the nation’s Independence Day every year by organizing a great event in parks all over the world.

The Philippine’s Independence Day is a national holiday so there are no classes in schools, all official instances, government offices and also most of the corporations are closed giving the occasion to the people to celebrate.

The annual June 12 observance of Philippine’s Independence Day came into effect after past President Diosdado Macapagal signed the Republic Act No. 4166 regarding this matter on August 4, 1964.
This Act legalized the holiday, which is based on the Declaration of Independence on June 12, 1898 by General Emilio Aguinaldo and Filipino revolutionary forces from the Spanish colonization.
The Philippine flag was raised and its national anthem was played for the first time in 1898.
However, liberty was short-lived because Spain and the United States did not recognize the declaration.

The 1898 Treaty of Paris ended the war between Spain and the United States.
Spain surrendered the entire archipelago comprising the Philippines to the United States.
The Philippines started a revolt against the United States in 1899 and achieved national sovereignty on July 4, 1946, through the Treaty of Manila.
Independence Day was officially observed on July 4 until the Republic Act No. 4166, which set out to move the holiday to June 12, was approved on August 4, 1964.
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